A flat, slightly textured surface finish for limestone.
A metal tie used to secure stone in place.
Curved stone structure resting on supports at both extremities used to sustain weight, to bridge or roof open space.
The member of an entablature resting on the capitals of columns and supporting the frieze.
A flat, slightly textured surface finish for limestone.
A flat-faced surface generally square or rectangular having sawed or dressed beds and joints.
A miniature column or other form of upright, which in a series supports a handrail as in a balustrade.
A railing or parapet consisting of a handrail and balusters. Sometimes on a base member and sometimes interrupted by piers.
A horizontal joint between stones, usually filled with mortar, lead, or sealant.
A continuous horizontal course of flat stones placed in line marking a division in the wall plane.
Textured finish achieved during the belt sawing process.
When the angle between two sides is greater or less than a right angle.
Stones projecting laterally into the backup wall used to tie the wall together.
Machine plucked, rough texture, ribbed finish.
A smooth finish produced by grinding with power sanders.
A flat, semirough textured surface finish for limestone.
Convex rounding of a stone member, such as the front edge of a stair tread or window sill.
A white or milkylike streak occurring in stone. It is a joint plane usually wider than a glass seam and has been re-cemented by deposition of calcite in the crack and is structurally sound.
A column cap.
Gray to black carbon streak occurring in stone, which is usually structurally sound.
Shaping by cutting a design to form; the trade of a sculptor.
To bevel the junction of an exterior angle.
A rough gang saw finish produced by sawing with coarse chat.
Non-load-bearing stone used as the facing material in wall construction that contains other materials.
Provision for the dimensional change of different parts of a structure due to shrinkage, expansion, temperature variation, or other causes so as to avoid the development of high stresses.
A flat or sloped stone used as a cap on freestanding walls.
A stone forming a part of a corner or angle in a wall. Also a stone laid at the formal inauguration of the erection of a building, not necessarily at a corner, and usually incorporating a date or inscription.
A moulded projecting stone at the top of an entablature.
Horizontal range of stone units the length of the wall.
Achieved by using stones of the same or approximately the same height. Horizontal joints run the entire length of the veneered area. Vertical joints are constantly broken so that no two joints will be over one another.
Dark grey to black zigzag marking occurring in stone. Usually structurally sound.
A term that refers to a lower level of stone quality.
Finished, dimensional stone, ready to set in place.
Handwork required to finish a stone which cannot be done by machine.
Term used to describe slabs of varying size, finish, and thickness which are used in fabricating treads, risers, copings, borders, sills, stools, hearths, mantels, and other special purpose stones.
One or more coatings of a compound that is impervious to water. Usually applied to the back of stone or face of back of wall.
Those features which affect or have the potential of affecting the structural soundness of building stone, or may affect the durability of the building stone. Sometimes used for visual features such as veins.
Block projections on an entablature.
Mold course immediately below the cornice, having on one of its members small uniformly spaced blocks referred to as dentils.
A finish produced by sawing with diamond toothed circular saws.
Stone pre-cut and shaped to specified sizes.
A limestone rich in magnesium carbonate, frequently crystalline in character, found in ledge formations in a variety of color tones and textures. Generally, its crushing and tensile strengths are greater than the oolitic limestone, and its appearance shows greater variety in texture.
A recess cut under a sill or projecting stone to throw off water, preventing it from running down the face of the wall or other surface such as a window or door.
An open or unhealed joint plane not filled with calcite and not structurally sound.
A crystalline deposit appearing on stone surfaces typically caused by soluble salts carried through or onto the stone by moisture. Sometimes found to come from brick, tile, concrete blocks, cement, mortar, concrete, and similar materials in the wall or above.
In classical architecture, the upper part of an order comprising architrave, frieze, and cornice.
The curve of the upper two-thirds of a column.
A metal expandable unit inserted into a drilled hole that grips stone by expansion.
Refers to the exposed portion of stone. Can also be used when referring to the edge treatment on cutting stock materials.
Final surface applied to the face of stone during fabrication.
Thin pieces of stone used for flagging or paving walks and patios.
Cutting quarried stone parallel to the natural bedding plane.
A grinding process to make all pieces of material to be used together the same thickness.
A narrow glass-like streak occurring in stone; a joint plane that has been re-cemented by deposition of translucent calcite in the crack and structurally sound.
A beginning course at the grade level, generally waterproofed with a damp check or damp course.
The easiest cleavage direction in a stone. “With the grain” same as “natural bed.” Also, particles (crystals, sand grains, etc.) of rock.
Mortar of pouring consistency.
The end of a stone that has been tooled to match the face of the stone. Heads are used at outside corners, windows, doorjambs, or any place where the veneering will be visible from the side.
That part of the floor of a fireplace of stone on which the fire is laid.
Originally the single large stone or stones used for the hearth. Now most commonly used to describe the stone in front of the fire chamber and many times extending on either or both sides of the front of the fire chamber.
Honed is a fine smooth finish.
To cut inwardly or engrave, as in an inscription.
Lettering cut in stone.
One having horizontal or nearly horizontal upper and lower surfaces. Also called flat or straight arch.
The space between stone units, usually filled with mortar.
An architect’s drawing detailing dimensions, location, and configuration of marble units and joints as related to the structure.
In ashlar patterns, a piece of stone of higher rise than adjacent stones that is used to end a horizontal mortar joint at the point where it is set.
The last wedge-shaped stone placed in the crown of an arch regarded as binding the whole.
Lead spacers in the solid horizontal joints to support the top stones until the mortar has set.
A sedimentary rock composed of calcium carbonate; includes many varieties (see oolitic limestone, dolomitic limestone, crystalline limestone.)
Structurally sound sections of limestone that are cemented to the back of marble veneer slabs to give greater strength, additional bearing surface, or to increase joint depth.
The block of stone spanning the top of an opening such as a doorway or window; sometimes called a head.
Usually refers to flagging materials; caused when two pieces of material to be joined together are slightly warped or twisted causing one of more edges to be higher or lower than the adjoining material.
A stone sill set into the jambs on each side of masonry opening.
A rough textured finish similar to rock face that is produced by machine.
A rough textured finish achieved when splitting the stone by a machine.
Describes method for producing finishes by machine. Such finishes include 4-cut and 6-cut finish.
Built up construction, usually of a combination of materials set in mortar.
Describes quality of material which includes the full quarry range of buff color, texture, veining, and tight seams.
The junction of two units at an angle of which the junction lines usually bisect on a 45° angle.
Decorative stone deviating from a plane surface by projections, curved profiles, recesses, or any combination thereof.
A plastic mixture of cement, lime, sand, and water used to bond masonry units.
The setting of the stone on the same plane as it was formed in the ground. This generally applies to all stratified materials.
Generally pertains to stones which are formed in layers in the ground. When such stones are cleaved or separated along a natural seam, the remaining surface is referred to as a natural cleft surface.
Mortar composed of materials which individually or collectively do not contain material that will stain, usually having a very low alkali content.
A calcitecemented calcareous stone formed of shells and shell fragments, practically non-crystalline in character. It is found in massive deposits located almost entirely in Lawrence, Monroe, and Owen Counties in Indiana, and in Alabama, Kansas, and Texas. This limestone is characteristically freestone without cleavage planes, possessing a remarkable uniformity of composition, texture, and structure. It possesses a high internal elasticity, adapting itself without damage to extreme temperature changes.
A system of stacking stone on wooden pallets.
A finished stone unit used on walls.
That part of any wall entirely above the roofline.
Damp-proofing by placing a coat of ½ inch (13mm) setting mortar to the back of stones or the face of the back-up material.
Stone used as an exterior wearing surface, as in patios, walkways.
An engaged pier of shallow depth. In classical architecture, it follows the height and width of related columns, with similar base and cap.
Stone having arris clearly defined; face, however, is roughly cut with pitching chisel used along the line that becomes the arris.
The lower square part of the base of a column. A square base or a lower block, as of a pedestal. The base block at the juncture or baseboard and trim around an opening.
Obtained by rough-planing the surface of stone, breaking, or plucking out small particles to give rough texture.
The final filling and finishing of mortar joints that have been raked out.
Two or more stones combined into a single unit by the use of epoxy resins, steel framing, or concrete backing.
The work involved in transforming building stone from quarry blocks to cut or finished stone. This includes primary sawing into slabs. It may also include both hand and mechanical techniques such as sawing, drilling, grinding, honing, polishing, and carving.
This refers to the pulling out of stones in a wall to give an effect of ruggedness. The amount each stone is pulled out can vary between 1/2 and 1-1/2 inches (1.3 to 3.8 cm). Stones are either pulled out at the same degree at both ends or sometimes one end is pulled out, leaving the other end flush with the majority of the veneer.
The location of an operation where a natural deposit of stone is removed from the ground.
Stone at the corner of a wall emphasized by size, projection, and rustication, or by a different finish.
A course of any thickness that is continued across the entire face. All range courses need not be of the same thickness.
Sinkages in a wall plane.
A narrow flat moulding of rectangular profile.
Ornament in relief. The ornament or figure can be slightly, half, or greatly projected.
The right angle turn of a moulding.
Stone facing with the finish appearing on both the face and the edge of the same stone, as on the corner of a building.
The depth of stone between its outer face and a window or door set in an opening.
The most pronounced (see grain) direction of splitting or cleavage of stone. Rift and grain may be obscure, but are important in both quarrying and processing.
The heights of stones, generally used in reference to veneer stone.
Rough finish achieved through hand dressing of the stone.
A recessed surface cut around or across the face of a stone to produce shadow accent.
A matte-texture limestone surface finish with no gloss, accomplished by exposing the surface to a steady flow of sand under pressure.
A clean-cut edge generally achieved by cutting with a diamond blade.
A finish obtained from the process of sawing. Finish varies in texture depending upon the sawing method used and hardness of the material. Sawn finish can be achieved through belt sawing, diamond sawing, etc.
A concave molding.
The work of a sculptor in three-dimensional form by cutting from a solid block of stone.
A resilient compound used as the final weather face in stone joints.
A flat or sloped stone used under windows, doors, and other masonry openings.
A slice of stone cut from a large quarry block. A slab is sawn on two sides.
A stone sill set between jambs (see lug sill).
A finish of minimum textural quality, presenting the least interruption of surface. Smooth finish may be applied to any surface, flat or molded. It is produced by a variety of machines.
The finished exposed underside of a lintel, arch, or portico.
That part of a curtain wall above the top of a window in one story and below the sill of the window in the story above.
A bevelled or slanted surface.
Stone on which the face has been split to an approximate plane.
Stone that is cut to one dimension and installed with unbroken vertical and horizontal joints running the entire length and height of the veneered area.
A sculpture of a human or animal figure.
An angle, plate, or other stone which carries a gravity load.
A pattern for repetitive marking or fabricating operation.
Any finish other than a smooth finish.
Dimensional allowance made for the inability of men and machines to fabricate a product of exact dimensions.
Ornamentation of panels, circular windows, window heads, etc.
A flat stone used as the top walking surface on steps.
¾" – 2 ½" thick stone relatively smooth-surfaced and machine tumbled to make the edges and corners smooth and rounded-off; face size, thickness, and colors will vary.
1" – 3" thick stone machine tumbled to make the edges and corners smooth and rounded-off; stacking surfaces are mostly flat; face size, thickness, and colors will vary.
A material, usually in thin sheet form or combined with a sheathing material, designed to prevent the passage of moisture through a wall or floor with the aim of preventing condensation within the wall.
A layer, seam, or narrow irregular body of mineral material different from the surrounding formation.
A non-structural facing of stone attached to a backing for ornamentation, protection, or insulation. Veneer should support no load other than its own weight and possibly the vertical dead load of veneer above.
A cavity in rock; sometimes lined or filled with either amorphous or crystalline material; common in calcareous rocks such as marble or limestone.
A bonder or metal piece which connects wythes of masonry to each other or to other materials.
A condition when stone twists or bends out of shape. This may occur with flagstone materials taken from the ground and used in their natural state. To eliminate warping in stone, it is necessary to further finish the material by such methods as machining, honing, or polishing.
A sloped area or the area water will run over.
A projection of lowest masonry on the outside of a wall slightly above the ground. Often a damp course is placed at the level of water table to prevent upward penetration of ground water.
Natural alteration by chemical or mechanical processes due to the atmosphere, surface waters, soil and other ground waters, or
Opening placed in mortar joints of facing material at the level of
flashing to permit the escape of moisture.
A continuous vertical section of masonry.
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Base Natural Stone
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